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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

9. "Vikings" (2.3 million)

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“疲软的国内需求和大宗商品价格下跌继续拖累中国的进口增长,”澳新银行(ANZ bank)经济学家刘利刚表示。“展望未来,中国的出口行业仍将面临一些重大不利因素。”
To Rouslan Krechetnikov and Hans Mayer for studying the dynamics of liquid-sloshing, to learn what happens when a person walks while carrying a cup of coffee. I`ll give you a hint: it happens between step 7 and 10.
budget

On the occasion of the New Year, may my wife and I extend to you and yours our warmest greetings, wishing you a happy New Year, your career greater success and your family happiness.
If you don't, you need to trade Boogie Cousins and all those veterans you signed over the past two offseasons.
米尔斯在接受《每日邮报》采访中说,“《老友记》的核心是关于人要如何生活,他们想要怎样的友谊,找一份怎样的工作,以及寻找安定的不易。这些问题都是你在离开家、成长为大人、实现梦想之时所面临的。”而这也是90年代青春文化的主要内容。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

“双十一”买家具避免陷阱 低价产品要看好细则

The seven large brick tombs were likelyconstructed for people of wealth, the researchers said.
Six regions recorded GDP growth less than 7 percent, with China's north-eastern rust belt Liaoning province at the bottom with negative growth.
美国电影学会选出了十部本年度最佳电影和电视剧。这些影片排名按字母表顺序排列,美国电影学院评审团选出这些影片的标准是促进了活动图像的艺术化、提升了美国艺术形式文化遗产的魅力、对观众和艺术者有所启发、在美国社会上占有一席之地。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

德国
Before becoming Germany's top trading partner, China was Germany's largest trading market in Asia. Germany has been China's top trading partner in the European Union for the last 2 years.
不会。事情可能会这样发展:在一次试运营(其间出现多次交易停止)后,比特币期货将慢慢开始吸引机构资金。美国商品期货交易委员会(CFTC)的持仓数据将反映出资金管理公司对该产品存在的长期偏见。随着减仓的巨额成本变得不言自明,多头将越来越大声地抱怨围绕结算时间的例行分歧。就在参议院计划举行听证会调查潜在的市场操纵行为时,比特币期货价格将跌破现货价格,引发抛售。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 节目18 杂技《冰与火》,赵丽 张权
  • 卫浴洁具的分类大全
  • Besides Edhec and HEC, Essec Business School, ESCP Europe and Skema Business School are in third, fourth and sixth places respectively.
  • 房地产的“二线战场”:资本深入非核心城市
  • 发改委:六举措展开下半年经济工作
  • “候选人的能力并不能用他们的年龄来衡量”,桑尼伯恩告诉《人物》(美国杂志)说,”尽管唐纳德·特朗普是当选美国总统的人中最年长的,但是“他的推文就像幼儿园小朋友一样”。“
    为了尝试遏制煤炭消耗量的增长,中国正在可再生能源和核能领域投入巨资,但尽管付出了这些努力,中国迄今为止依然是最大的温室气体排放国。中国每年因化石燃料燃烧和水泥生产排放100亿吨二氧化碳,几乎是美国的两倍,但美国的人均排放量依然远远高于中国。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 一季度居民收入榜:9省份跑赢全国 上海18704元居首, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

专家开“药方”·租金最好不超过收入的30%

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

楼市新一轮调控密集来袭!楼市趋稳态势未变

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • We will improve planning for regional development.
    One of the more notorious incidents was when Zhu Ling, a student at the prestigious Tsinghua University, was paralyzed when her roommate allegedly poisoned her with thallium in 1994.
  • The judging committee (of one) has spent weeks deciding which members of the Royal family, politicians and celebrities deserve one of these most galling of gongs to mark a grievous breach of protocol or lapse in mannerly judgement over the past year.
    population
    不像这篇文章中其他的人造物品,人工胰腺并不处于前期研究阶段,这个装置确实存在,而且在今年9月份得到了FDA的销售许可
    9. You've been avoiding your boss。
    9.在培养皿中跳动的心脏

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 原材料司加快推广应用绿色建材工作
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 中央经济工作会议:重点发展长期租赁

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

那么,当你看到17岁的尼克?达洛伊西奥(Nick D’Aloisio)意气风发地走进伦敦巴尔?布鲁(Bar Boulud)餐厅,与人坚定地握着手,描绘他未来事业蓝图的时候,你应该会惊讶得合不拢嘴了吧。他就像是个来自硅谷的首席执行长(CEO),应对媒体时从容不迫,技巧上可以打97的高分。聊天时,他眼神坚定地注视着你,从诺姆?乔姆斯基(Noam Chomsky)的理论、神经网络科学,到移民心态乃至佛教瑜伽,他一切话题都能自信地畅所欲言。但他又像是个One Direction男孩组合的成员,修长的身材配着嬉皮T恤和修身小西装,头发凌乱地搭在脑门前,一边咬着吉士汉堡,一边发表着让人瞠目结舌的见解。
全球化和世界的和平发展合作是一体的、不可分的。
愿新年不仅是你欢笑的时刻,更是你欣喜的日子。祝福你。
1."The Little Kicks" in Seinfeld Almost Didn't Happen
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5. The top 300bureaucrats will rally behind Xi’s reforms and these bold new programs, backingthe central government while bringing these ambitions to their provincialgovernments and setting parallel growth goals at home. Detailed plans forreform and accelerated growth will be set, and then promptly executed, ingeographies across China. We expect the tier three and four markets torally again this year, growing faster than tier one and two cities.
单词institute 联想记忆:

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Who greets a member of any royal family, however young, with a high five?
  • 房地产库存将升至25个月高位?据说百城“抢人”大战可降库存
  • 在咨询公司Brand Finance的《2017年全球500强》报告中,搜索巨头谷歌超过了iPhone的制造商苹果公司,成为了全世界市值最高的公司。
    “…was checking his cell phone and chewing gum during the meeting.”
  • 中国建材行业一周大事记(6.8-6.14)
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 7. 2012年搞笑诺贝尔奖之物理学奖
    According to historical accounts, Richard's body was transported naked and bloody on the back of a pack horse to Leicester before being buried in an unmarked grave at Greyfriars, a Franciscan friary in the central English city.
  • Mr. Anderson wanted an abundance and a variety of facial hair on the men, with no beard or mustache adorning each actor’s face in quite the same way. It’s a veritable hipster’s row of styles, from pencils to handlebars to a black-and-gray goatee worn by Jeff Goldblum.
    "There's a new type of wealth creation coming out," he told Reuters, adding China was having to adapt as the wider economy was "very materially slowing down".
  • 不过,这一涨幅显著低于此前一个月8.2%的环比涨幅。
    oDesk and Elance (now in the process of merging) are freelance marketplaces, which allow you to quickly identify, engage and hire freelancers from all over the globe. Need a website developer or content writer? Don’t hire an employee; instead, work with a freelancer. At last count, there were more than 1 million freelance contractors available via these marketplaces.
  • 最后西蒙点评:“你们在唱的时候眼睛里透露出坚定,唱得相当投入,第一次我听到你们唱这首歌的时候我觉得很惊艳,而这一次提高了不少,更上了一个台阶。”
    The Veterans Day holiday, which pays tribute to all men and women who have served in the U.S. military, dates back to 1919, when President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed November 11 as Armistice Day to celebrate the end of fighting exactly one year earlier in World War One - "the war to end all wars" - between Germany and the allied nations of Britain, France and the United States. The armistice famously went into effect at "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month."
    北方高等商学院毕业生的平均薪酬水平为10.5万美元,排名第11位,而斯隆毕业生为14.36万美元。他们的薪资增幅为79%,排名第七。
  • 单词repertoire 联想记忆:
    President Barack Obama won re-election to a second term in the White House on Tuesday, television networks projected, beating Republican challenger Mitt Romney after a long and bitter campaign。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 遭“最冷发债” 慈善富豪何巧女遇“无米之炊”? shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

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Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

2016年家居商业市场被看好 卖场主攻营销

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

上海市委书记李强:沪苏浙交界处将设立长三角一体化示范区

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

下乡政策推进缓慢 家居建材企业下乡难

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 根据这份新报告,在过去20年里,印度是发起反倾销案最多的国家,在1995年至2015年间发起的4990件反倾销案中,印度发起了767件,占比为15%。同期,美国发起了570件,欧盟发起了480件。
  • The prospect of a major shakeup right before the deadline is usually a recipe for disaster, especially if it leads to immediate roster change.
  • 临近年底改善型需求入市 二手房成交量价回升

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • It is the first time that EMBA-Global, the joint programme delivered by London Business School and Columbia Business School, has dropped out of the top five.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 6. 《出租车》(Taxi),导演贾法·帕纳西(Jafar Panahi)。
    然而一般情况下,你只需注意洗衣机是否停止发出噪声就能来判断洗衣服是否结束。另外你也只要抬头一看外面的天气或者看一下天气预报app,就能知道是否会下雨了。因此,这个产品基本上只是一种黑客进入你家的方式。
    同时,调查数据还显示,榜单上前100名的学校,毕业生平均月薪较去年上涨了1818元,涨幅达到22.8%。
  • 7成以上受访者表示,实现自我价值是创业的最大动机。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Jackie Chan, a kung fu star and a member of the CPPCC National Committee, raised his experiences about smoking bans in China and Singapore as an example. During a business trip, his colleagues still smoked after a warning from a security guard in Zhuhai, Guangdong province, but they didn't dare smoke when they arrived in Singapore because "it was strict about smoking there".
  • 北京多部门打击“租房贷” 专家:中介私自将租赁变为贷款属欺诈
  • Fifteen Chinese nationals have been charged with developing a fraud scheme in which they paid imposters to take entrance exams, including the SAT, and gained acceptance to elite American colleges and universities, the US Department of Justice said on Thursday. Conspirators were paid up to $6,000 each time they used counterfeit Chinese passports to trick test administrators into thinking they were the person who would benefit from the test score, a federal grand jury charged.重点单词

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 2014年建材行业年度投资策略
  • Household substance abuse
  • 外墙保温施工中常见的问题
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

2万亿减负力度空前超预期 企业乐享减税降费多重红利

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 今天砸百万元当房奴 明天真能变成千万富翁?
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 顾家家居试水线上线下一体化 分羹电商市场
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

(实际上,在过去三年的节日假期里,捷蓝航空公司绝对不是航班起飞延误最糟糕的航空公司。这项殊荣要授予Comair公司,这是达美航空公司经营地区航线的公司。不过该公司在2012年假日季节开始前停业,因此我们没有让这家公司上榜。)

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

adj. 故意的,有意的;打算中的 n. 已订婚者 v.
不论是她与最近崭露头角的说唱乐歌手卡布卡克合作的《Lipgloss》(《唇彩》),还是与凯伦·玛丽·奥斯特(M?)合作的《3AM(Pull Up)》(《凌晨3点(停下来)》),《1号天使》这张专辑的怪异节奏和摇滚舞曲感觉就像这位英国明星的流行音乐才华最纯粹的结晶。
To see that businesses and the public benefit more from our reforms to streamline administration, delegate powers, and improve regulation and services, we must cut red tape, level the playing field, provide greater convenience, and remove that last crucial hurdle.
So ladies, we have been warned. What would your response be?
It was a rare glimpse into his closely guarded personal life that also put at risk Apple’s brand in less tolerant parts of the world. Mr Cook was driven to take a stand by his experiences growing up in Alabama, where he has talked of seeing discrimination that “literally would make me sick”.
这支在11月有着过半胜率的不断进步的球队完全不是垫底球队,这是一支严格意义上的可能的季后赛球队,但是就像所有重建中的球队都会讨论的那样,是靠现有球员和上场时间来换取当下的胜利呢,还是更关注于可持续性的发展呢?
['s?ul]
Hope you enjoy the happiness of New Year and all the trimmings.
The pair stand on opposite sides backstage and memorize the winners to avoid having to write them down and have revealed in the past how they carry out rigorous checks to ensure they have stuffed the envelopes correctly. It is believed Ruiz and Cullinan are ordered to destroy the duplicate cards as the presentation goes on, so by the time Best Picture is awarded, the only envelopes left are the two for Best Picture.
最佳综艺脱口秀:《约翰?奥利佛上周今夜秀》(Last Week Tonight With John Oliver, HBO)

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

辽宁绿色新材制备技术填补行业空白

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • [kɑ:st]
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Last year, the Education Ministry issued a booklet warning Korean high school students of 'plastic surgery syndrome', citing Michael Jackson and a local woman whose addiction to plastic surgery left her with a grotesquely swollen face.
  • 线下卖场集体抵制 天猫家居O2O陷紧急叫停风波
  • 郭晶晶与霍启刚(香港近代富豪霍英东的孙子)的秘密恋情已经引起了全民的想象,人们似乎在关注运动员赛场表现之余,也愈加关心起他们的私人生活了。
  • 李克强:减税降费和简政、公平监管,是应对经济下行压力、激发市场活力的关键举措
  • 10. Are YOU Re-Energized?

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 专家:公积金新政短期内救楼市效果有限
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • adj. 传统的
  • Still, experts see a crisis of white identity underlying much of the West’s current turmoil.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

衣柜市场产品品牌“身影”增多 未来企业或面临三条路

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